Feb 01, 1993 To increase germanium extraction, the USBM developed and researched the hypothesis that minor amounts of germanium and zinc silicate, present in zinc calcine, dissolve during the leaching stages of zinc processing, forming soluble germanium and silica gel. This silica gel then selectively adsorbs germanium from solution, rendering the germanium insoluble.
Sep 23, 2018 Increasing Germanium Extraction A sulfuric acid leach technique for extracting gallium and germanium from Apex ore without the use of a reducing agent, such as SO2, was investigated. Leaching studies showed that with increasing sulfuric acid concentrations, gallium extraction increased to over 95%, while germanium extraction reached a peak of 71% before decreasing to less than 50%.
Jan 01, 2012 The optimum extraction conditions are TOA 30%, improving reagent 5%, diluent 65%. O/A 1/8, mass ratio of complexing agent to germanium 12-16, and at normal temperature,3-5 min.The optimum back extraction conditions are NaOH concentration 30%, O/A2, and at normal temperature, 3-5 min.Through one step extraction and one step back wash extraction, germanium extraction rate
To increase germanium extraction, the USBM developed and researched the hypothesis that minor amounts of germanium and zinc silicate, present in zinc calcine, dissolve during the leaching stages ...
Fig 1 relationship of germanium extraction rate It can be seen from Fig.1 that a single extractive rate of germanium reached 97.3% under pH2.0.With the acidity was increasing,the extraction of germanium was reducing gradually.The main reason was
Oct 26, 2012 Germanium products are well suited for many advanced materials applicationslens blanks for infrared optics, dioxide for electronic and catalyst use, intrinsic metal for radiation detectors, and electronic grade tetrachloride for optical fibers. Before undertaking these applications, however, the germanium must first be recovered. This article reviews the germanium extraction and ...
When LIX 63 alone is used for germanium extraction, a significant amount of acid is co-extracted along with the germanium, and the acid co-extraction increases with increasing acid concentration in the aqueous feed solution.
O/A 1/8, mass ratio of complexing agent to germanium 12-16, and at normal temperature,3-5 min.The optimum back extraction conditions are NaOH concentration 30%, O/A2, and at normal temperature ...
In fact, it is merely necessary to increase the number of extraction steps to obtain a high germanium recovery level. Thus, with two extraction steps, the ratio between the volume of the organic phase and that of the aqueous phase being equal to unity for each of them, and the initial aqueous phase containing 5 grams of germanium per liter ...
extraction d2ehpa acid germanium Prior art date 1987-09-29 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Expired - Lifetime Application number US07/237,742 Inventor Daniel A. D. Boateng David A ...
vent extraction, (5) germanium solvent extraction, and (6) germanium and gallium coextraction. IDENTIFYING DOMESTIC SOURCES To decrease the U.S. dependence on foreign sources, more than 50 potential gallium and germanium ores and . several residue byproducts were
Jul 10, 2013 Solvent extraction experiments were conducted from acidic solutions containing germanium(IV) and other metal ions, such as Ga 3, Fe 3, Zn 2 and Fe 2 in hydrometallurgical process of zinc. The purpose of this work was to enhance the efficiency of the extraction and stripping processes and the selectivity of germanium and other metals, while making the method as simple as
Feb 09, 2021 Gallium and germanium are highly important elements used in different high-tech areas, and new secondary raw materials for its extraction are the subject of a thorough search. In this study, germanium is found in the wastes from the Hall-Heroult process for the first time. The mechanism of gallium and germanium circulation in the aluminum reduction cell is discussed. Four types of
Aug 19, 2010 Using 0.5 M KI and different HCl concentrations it was found that by decreasing the HCl concentration the extraction of germanium decreases. The optimum extraction of radioarsenic occurred from a solution of 4.75 M HCl and 0.5 M KI. Two extraction steps were found to be sufficient to extract about 98% of radioarsenic and 2% of germanium.
Chemistry and technology vol M, MISA, 2003, s-214). The disadvantage of this method is not sufficiently high degree of extraction of germanium from multicomponent solution. The technical result is to eliminate this drawback, namely increasing the degree of extraction of germanium from slag processing of polymetallic ores.
The U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated solvent extraction methods for recovering germanium from sulfuric acid leach filtrates. A new organic extractant system was developed that synergistically and selectively recovered germanium from these solutions. A continuous solvent extraction circuit was operated for over 150 h, extracting over 90 pct of the germanium from 0.30-G/l ge filtrates containing
COMPLEX COMPOUNDS OF GERMANIUM AND ITS STATE IN SOLUTION V. A. Nazarenko and A. M. Andrianov In connection with the increasing interest taken in germanium in the last two decades, many of its complex compounds have been described, particularly in the litera-ture on analytical chemistry, but the available information is extremely limited.
GERMANIUM (Data in kilograms of germanium content unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use In 2019, zinc concentrates containing germanium were produced at mines in Alaska, Tennessee, and Washington. Germanium-containing concentrates in Alaska and Washington were exported to a refinery in Canada for processing and germanium recovery.
A method of extracting germanium from a germanium deposit using a thermal reduction process is disclosed. The method includes adding sodium monophosphate to a germanium deposit to obtain a mixed germanium deposit isolating the mixed germanium deposit from air increasing the temperature and then baking the mixed germanium deposit and obtaining a germanium concentrate after
May 04, 2021 An increase in the pH values was shown to lead to a decrease in the extraction of Ge(IV) with HL from sulfate-thiocyanate solutions. At pH values of 5.9, the degree of germanium recovery is 2.0 % which makes stripping with alkaline aqueous solutions possible.
on the extraction and quantification of Ge(IV) was illustrated in the range of (0.21.4 mL) of 5 103 M. The sensitivity of the procedure was increased by increasing the ATAP concentration up to 1.4 104 M and remained constant at higher concentrations. Therefore, 1.6
The invention belongs to the metallurgical industry, and particularly relates to a method for enrichment and recovery of gallium and germanium from raffinate of an indium smelting system. A neutralizing agent is added into indium raffinate in the production of indium by using a zinc smelting system for preneutralization to remove a large amount of free sulfuric acid in the solution, the ...
Materials missing in data libraries Germanium extraction and wafer production (critical raw material) Basis for analysis (functional unit) One solar panel with triple junction solar cells of the type GaInP/GaAs/Ge on 150 m Ge wafer The cell efficiency in the range 28-30%.
Apr 22, 2015 Summary This study provides a global substance flow analysis for gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), and indium (In) for 2011, quantifying the amount of metal lost during extraction, beneficiation/smelti...
The U.S. Bureau of Mines studied the extraction of gallium and germanium from hydrometallurgical zinc processing residues. Statistically designed experiments showed that the most significant variables were h2so4 concentration for gallium extraction and pulp- solids density for germanium extraction. Leaching the residue with 2,000 lb h2so4/st residue for 4.5 H at 80 deg. C using 20 pct pulp solids
There are five naturally occurring isotopes of germanium germanium-70, germanium-72, germanium-73, germanium-74, and germanium-76. Isotopes are two or more forms of an element. Isotopes differ from each other according to their mass number. The number written to the right of the elements name is the mass number.
Nov 20, 2017 For up to 40 ng of Ge(IV), The effect of ATAP concentration on the extraction and quantification of Ge(IV) was illustrated in the range of (0.21.4 mL) of 5 10 3 M. The sensitivity of the procedure was increased by increasing the ATAP concentration up to 1.4 10 4 M and remained constant at higher concentrations. Therefore, 1.6 10 4 M ATAP was applied in all further work.
The selectivity sorption of germanium was studied in the presence of elements such as silicon, zinc or copper which are likely to be competitive cations in solutions from urban mines or mine deposits. Selective extraction and separation of germanium have been demonstrated. Changes in the selectivities properties of the resins have been observed ...
EFFECT increasing of extraction ability of system at extraction of germanium from sulfuric solutions, reduction of chelating extractant content in organic phase, implementation of extraction in area of low acidity. 3 tbl, 5 ex
Increasing germanium extraction from hydrometallurgical. Authors Harbuck-DD Source Miner Metall Process 1993 Feb 4 pages Link NIOSHTIC No. 10003910 Abstract MISSING CODEN. MMPRE8 ...
Germanium is mainly a byproduct of zinc ore processing. It is a hard, grayish-white element it has a metallic luster and the same crystal structure as diamond and it is brittle, like glass. In addition, it is important to note that germanium is a semiconductor, with electrical properties between those of a metal and an insulator. The development of the germanium
Extraction of Heteropolycompounds and Its Application in InorganicAnalysis E N Dorokhova and I P Alimarin- ... In connection with the increasing interest taken in germanium in the last two decades, many of its complex compounds have been described, particularly in the litera-
CMI Project 1.1.18 Gallium, indium and germanium extraction from zinc residue produced for steel wastes Gallium, germanium, and indium are critical building blocks for modern electronics. The Missouri University of Science and Technology and Colorado School of Mines are partnering to evaluate the recovery of these elements from zinc plant ...
Mar 30, 2007 A continuous solvent extraction circuit was operated for over 150 hr, extracting over 90% of the germanium from 0.30 g/L Ge filtrates containing 40 to 60 g/L free acid. Over 90% of the loaded germanium was stripped from the organic phase with water at 75 C. A section on germanium and gallium co-extraction is also presented.
A new Si-Ge PIN waveguide photodiode with 31GHz bandwidth and 93% quantum efficiency at 1550nm has been developed by Yin et al.73, which was fabricated using standard CMOS processes on a Silicon substrate. This thesis demonstrates a method for improving the RF power extraction from these photodiodes by increasing the impedance of the load.
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